Невидимая Вселенная: астрономы раскрывают тайны космоса в инфракрасном свете

Автор:  Евгения Сафонова | 14.03.2014 04:44:21 |

Версия для печати
Давайте на минутку почувствуем себя волшебниками и научимся видеть невидимые вещи. Волшебная палочка не понадобится - нам поможет наука. В этот раз мы заглянем в инфракрасное “окно” и увидим нашу Вселенную, от котиков и скорпионов до величественных галактик.

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Недавно я рассказывала про то, как астрономы изучают Вселенную в радиодиапазоне. На самом деле, подобных “окошек”, недоступных нашему глазу, довольно много. Мы можем заглянуть в них при помощи специальных приборов, и узнать много интересного о нашем мире. Одно из таких “окошек” - это инфракрасный диапазон (или, сокращенно, ИК диапазон).


Давайте для начала посмотрим, как в этом диапазоне выглядят разные животные. Например, собака:

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На подобных снимках можно увидеть распределение температуры. Более теплые области получаются на них ярче - например, глаза и рот, а еще ушки. Там, где шерсть густая и тепло лучше задерживается у тела, мы видим более холодные области. При этом сама собака, конечно же, теплее окружающего пространства.


Парочка жирафов греется на солнышке:

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На заднем плане - затененная роща. Там прохладнее, поэтому на правом снимке эта область темная. А нагретая земля светится даже ярче, чем сами жирафы, значит, там горячее. Если присмотреться повнимательнее, вы увидите, что коричневые пятна на теле жирафов оказываются горячее, чем желтый узор. Так получается оттого, что темные предметы сильнее нагреваются, а светлые лучше отражают свет. Многие наверняка замечали летом этот эффект - если вы оденетесь в черное, в солнечную погоду вам будет гораздо жарче, так что стоит надевать светлые вещи.


Лошади в ИК:

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Инфракрасный снимок справа был сделан в теплую погоду. Здесь опять самые яркие и теплые места - глаза и область рта, самые темные и холодные - грива и окружающее пространство.


Скорпион:

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А вот скорпион - хладнокровное животное в самом прямом смысле этого слова, его тело принимает температуру окружающей среды. Человек, как животное теплокровное, получается на инфракрасном снимке довольно ярким. А наш хладнокровный скорпион на его фоне очень выделяется.


То же самое верно и для хладнокровного геккона:

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Кстати, обратите внимание, что у геккона глаза холоднее, чем остальное тело.
Если вам интересно - можете посмотреть целый инфракрасный зоопарк вот на этом сайте.


Так выглядит в инфракрасном диапазоне лужайка, покрытая травой, и цветок:

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А это - мой инфракрасный портрет:

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Еще одна “человеческая” фотография:

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Инфракрасное излучение может легко проходить через некоторые материалы и вещества. Благодаря этому на правой фотографии нам видна рука человека, скрытая черным непрозрачным пакетом.

Это же свойство помогает астрономам изучать космические объекты, скрытые от нас пылью и газом.

Туманность в созвездии Киля. Облако газа и пыли на снимке в видимом диапазоне (наверху) становится почти прозрачным в инфракрасном диапазоне (нижний снимок).
Мы можем увидеть молодые звезды, до этого прятавшиеся от нас.

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Кусочек туманности Ориона:

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А в некоторой части инфракрасного диапазона наоборот, пыль сама начинает светить, и мы можем получше ее рассмотреть. Фотографии Туманности Андромеды, соседней с нами крупной галактики:

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В видимом диапазоне на верхнем снимке темные пылевые прожилки еле видны. Зато их можно хорошенько рассмотреть на нижнем инфракрасном снимке.


Спиральная галактика M101 (слева видимый диапазон, справа - инфракрасный):

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Галактика M82:

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В этой галактике происходит очень активное рождение звезд. Даже на левом снимке, сделанном в видимом диапазоне, заметно очень много темных пылевых прожилок. На правом, инфракрасном снимке, видно большое пылевое гало, окружающее галактику - часть пыли от нас просто пряталась.


На самом деле инфракрасное “окно” полезно не только для астрономов. Благодаря специальным спутникам, работающим в этом диапазоне, можно точно узнать место пожара, скрытое от наших глаз дымом, или найти человека в задымленном помещении. Кроме того, можно сделать прибор ночного видения - неважно, насколько темно вокруг, живые существа (например, человек или кошка) будут излучать тепло, а значит, их легко можно увидеть в инфракрасном диапазоне. И никакой магии, только наука!


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